# Advanced Mathematics and the Ancient Earthworks in the Ohio Valley

**Diagram of the Newark Earthworks done by the Midwestern Epigraphic Society shows the square of the Octagon at 1050 feet. The diameter of the circle is 1050 feet. Knowledge of pi and the square root of a number must have been known in order to do the equation of squaring a circle to construct this earthwork. Are we do believe that Native Americans forgot this knowledge, or believe a more plausible conclusion that someone else came here and built it? Note**

The evidence of a religious cult based on numbers is theorized on the occurrence of certain lengths or numbers within the Adena and Hopewell earthworks. These various lengths appear with such regularity to conclude that the earthworks were methodically measured using both simple and complex mathematics in conjunction with a numerical canon that specified the lengths and diameters of various circles and square earthworks, prior to their construction.

**The number of degrees from the true north through the main axis of the Newark earthwork is 51.8 degrees. This is identical to the angle of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Coincidence?**

Certain numbers must have exposed hidden words, phrases or images. In other words, the numbers in of themselves held sacred meanings and attributes that were encompassed within the construction of an earthwork.

**North of the Newark Earthworks is the "Alligator Mound" its identity is likely related to some kind of reptile. The orientation of the effigy is aligned to the May 1st sunrise, as is the Great Circle at Newark. The length of the work is 210 feet. This was a very important number to the Ohio mound builders. Its length was used in the construction of Earthen Sun Temples. 210 X 5 = 1050.**

The earthworks were then, not only held sacred within their shape and function, but also the numbers derived from the measurements from which they were constructed.

Geometrically, the shapes of the earthworks are diverse, but most are squares, circles or a combination of both. William Romain, the author of Mysteries

*of the Hopewell, Astronomers, Geometers, and Magicians of the Eastern Woodlands*,*2000,*examined the mathematical relationships between the circles and square and octagons and shows the complex arithmetic that was utilized in the construction of the Adena Hopewell's earthworks. Romain explains the spatial relationships of these earthworks in mathematical formulas and shows that the Adena and Hopewell knew how to “square a circle,” meaning the square and circle had equal perimeters. Also, they understood nested squares, where the diagonal of a square earthwork conjoined with a circular earthwork had a corresponding diameter. The Hopewellian earthen octagons are also explained geometrically as formulated from truncated squares and the mathematics involved in the making of these imposing earthworks.